Las 10 imágenes más hermosas del Universo que ha tomado el Hubble

El Universo, dice algún poeta, es un gran lienzo en donde encontramos los mejores óleos que dibuja la naturaleza. Espectáculos llenos de color y magia que maravillan a cualquiera con solo levantar la vista y encontrarse con la Luna, una que otra constelación o, los que tienen más suerte, con lluvias de asteroides o la aurora boreal.

Sin embargo, más allá de lo que nuestros ojos alcanzan a ver hay un sinfín de espectáculos increíbles que suceden todo el tiempo y de los que no nos damos cuenta. Pero, por suerte, el 24 de diciembre de 1991 a un grupo de genios de la Nasa y la Agencia Espacial Europea se les ocurrió la fantástica idea de enviar un telescopio a orbitar alrededor de la Tierra. Lo llamaron Hubble, en honor al astrónomo estadounidense Edwin Hubble.

Y que el Universo te llene de magia

Luego, a otro genio se le ocurrió la idea de abrirle una cuenta de Instagram al Hubble y ahora podemos disfrutar de las imágenes que toma mientras le da vueltas completas a la Tierra cada 97 minutos. Estas son algunas de las más hermosas.

Esta es la nebulosa del anillo o nebulosa planetaria tiene los brillos remanentes de una estrella parecida a nuestro Sol. El centro brillante es el núcleo caliente de una estrella enana blanca. Se encuentra en la constelación Lyra, a 2.000 años luz.

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This illustration shows a neutron star (RX J0806.4-4123) with a disk of warm dust that produces an infrared signature as detected by Hubble. The disk wasn’t directly photographed, but one way to explain the data is by hypothesizing a disk structure that could be 18 billion miles across. The disk would be made up of material falling back onto the neutron star after the supernova explosion that created the stellar remnant. Neutron stars are among the strangest objects in the universe. Neutron stars are a case of extreme physics produced by the unforgiving force of gravity. The entire core of an exploded star has been squeezed into a solid ball of neutrons with the density of an atom’s nucleus. Neutron stars spin as fast as a blender on puree. Some spit out death-star beams of intense radiation — like interstellar lighthouses. These are called pulsars. These beams are normally seen in X-rays, gamma-rays, and radio waves. But astronomers used Hubble's near-infrared (IR) vision to look at a nearby neutron star cataloged RX J0806.4-4123. They were surprised to see a gush of IR light coming from a region around the neutron star. That infrared light might come from a circumstellar disk 18 billion miles across. Another idea is that a wind of subatomic particles from the pulsar’s magnetic field is slamming into interstellar gas. Hubble's IR vision opens a new window into understanding how these "infernal machines" work. For more information, follow the link in our bio. Credits: NASA, ESA, and B. Posselt (Pennsylania State University) #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #neutronstar #infrared #supernova #pulsar #physics

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Esta imagen es de una estrella de neutrones con un disco de polvo caliente que produce una señal infrarroja.

#QueLaFuerzaEstéContigo… Esta foto fue compartida el cuatro de mayo, el día de Star Wars, ya que el centro de esta galaxia espiral luce como una nave imperial Tie Fighter.

Esta es la Nebulosa del Cono. Es una de las primeras que capturó el sistema avanzado de cámaras de Hubble, que fue instalado hace 16 años.

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This is an image of the Cartwheel Galaxy taken by Hubble. The object was first spotted on wide-field images from the U.K. Schmidt telescope and then studied in detail using the Anglo-Australian Telescope. Lying about 500 million light-years away in the constellation of Sculptor, the cartwheel shape of this galaxy is the result of a violent galactic collision. A smaller galaxy has passed right through a large disk galaxy and produced shock waves that swept up gas and dust — much like the ripples produced when a stone is dropped into a lake — and sparked regions of intense star formation (appearing blue). The outermost ring of the galaxy, which is 1.5 times the size of our Milky Way, marks the shock wave’s leading edge. This object is one of the most dramatic examples of the small class of ring galaxies. This image is based on earlier Hubble data of the Cartwheel Galaxy that was reprocessed in 2010, bringing out more detail in the image than seen before. Credit: NASA/Hubble #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #cartwheel #galaxy #HubbleFriday

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Esta es la galaxia Cartwheel. La forma de la rueda de carro de esta galaxia es el resultado de una violenta colisión galáctica. Una galaxia más pequeña pasó a través de una gran galaxia de disco y produjo ondas de choque que barrieron el gas y el polvo, como cuando tiras una roca en un lago.

Si quieres ver más imágenes y saber más del telescopio Hubble, mira estos artículos.

 

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#HubbleClassic In its first glimpse of the heavens following the successful December 1999 servicing mission, Hubble captured this majestic view of the planetary nebula NGC 2392, the glowing remains of a dying Sun-like star roughly 5,000 light-years away. First spied by William Herschel in 1787, this stellar relic is nicknamed the Eskimo Nebula because, when viewed through ground-based telescopes, it resembles a face surrounded by a fur parka. As revealed in this Hubble image, the "parka" is really a disk of material embellished with a ring of comet-shaped objects, with their tails streaming away from the central, dying star. The Eskimo's "face" also contains some fascinating details. Although this bright central region resembles a ball of twine, it is, in reality, a bubble of material being blown into space by the central star's intense "wind" of high-speed material. Credit: NASA/Hubble #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #nebula #Eskimo

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Una imagen capturada por el hubble en 1999 de la nebulosa planetaria NGC 2392, los brillantes restos de una estrella agonizante, parecida al Sol, ubicada a unos 5.000 años luz de distancia.

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#HubbleClassic This Hubble image of the Hourglass Nebula (MyCn18) captures the slow death of a Sun-like star roughly 8,000 light-years away. Released 22 years ago today, Hubble’s image revealed fine details in this planetary nebula that astronomers hadn’t seen before. In previous ground-based images, MyCn18 appeared to be a pair of large outer rings with a smaller central one, but Hubble’s view confirmed the nebula was shaped like an hourglass with an intricate pattern of "etchings" in its walls. A pair of intersecting rings in the central region might be the rims of a smaller hourglass. What appears as a bright elliptical ring in the center is seen on closer inspection to be a potato-shaped structure with an axis that’s dramatically different from that of the larger hourglass. And the hot central star, thought to produce and illuminate the nebula, appears oddly off center. Credit: NASA/Hubble #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #nebula #hourglass

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Esta es la nebulosa del reloj de arena. Pero hay algo más maravilloso, nunca antes visto: en el centro estás viendo la lenta muerte de una estrella, parecida al Sol, ubicada a unos 8.000 millones de años luz.

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#HubbleClassic These two images of a huge pillar of star birth demonstrate how observations taken in visible and in infrared light by Hubble reveal dramatically different and complementary views of an object. The pictures demonstrate one example of the broad wavelength range of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) aboard the Hubble telescope, extending from ultraviolet to visible to infrared light. Composed of gas and dust, the pillar resides in a tempestuous stellar nursery called the Carina Nebula, located 7,500 light-years away in the southern constellation Carina. The pair of images shows that astronomers have a much more complete view of the pillar and its contents when distinct details not seen at visible wavelengths are uncovered in near-infrared light. The first image, taken in visible light, shows the tip of the 3-light-year-long pillar, bathed in the glow of light from hot, massive stars off the top of the image. Scorching radiation and fast winds (streams of charged particles) from these stars are sculpting the pillar and causing new stars to form within it. Streamers of gas and dust can be seen flowing off the top of the structure. In the second image, taken in near-infrared light, the dense column and the surrounding greenish-colored gas all but disappear. Only a faint outline of the pillar remains. By penetrating the wall of gas and dust, the infrared vision of WFC3 reveals the infant star that is probably blasting the jet. Part of the jet nearest the star is more prominent in this view. These features can be seen because infrared light, unlike visible light, can pass through the dust. For more information on Hubble, follow the link in our bio. Credits: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble SM4 ERO Team #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #star #visible #infrared #carinanebula #nebula #jet

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Compuesto de gas y polvo, este pilar reside en un vivero estelar tempestuoso llamado la Nebulosa Carina, ubicada a 7.500 años luz de distancia en la constelación meridional de Carina. Acá hay dos imágenes, que muestran cosas distintas: una con luz natural y otra con luz infrarroja. El Universo esconde muchas de sus maravillas.

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Happy #FourthofJuly from the cosmos! These "celestial fireworks" are actually the Antennae Galaxies. The two spiral galaxies started to interact a few hundred million years ago, making the Antennae galaxies one of the nearest and youngest examples of a pair of colliding galaxies. Nearly half of the faint objects in the Antennae image are young clusters containing tens of thousands of stars. The orange blobs to the left and right of image center are the two cores of the original galaxies and consist mainly of old stars criss-crossed by filaments of dust, which appears brown in the image. The two galaxies are dotted with brilliant blue star-forming regions surrounded by glowing hydrogen gas, appearing in the image in pink. The image allows astronomers to better distinguish between the stars and super star clusters created in the collision of two spiral galaxies. By age dating the clusters in the image, astronomers find that only about 10 percent of the newly formed super star clusters in the Antennae will survive beyond the first 10 million years. The vast majority of the super star clusters formed during this interaction will disperse, with the individual stars becoming part of the smooth background of the galaxy. It is however believed that about a hundred of the most massive clusters will survive to form regular globular clusters, similar to the globular clusters found in our own Milky Way galaxy. The Antennae galaxies take their name from the long antenna-like "arms" extending far out from the nuclei of the two galaxies, best seen by ground-based telescopes. These "tidal tails" were formed during the initial encounter of the galaxies some 200 to 300 million years ago. They give us a preview of what may happen when our Milky Way galaxy will collide with the neighboring Andromeda galaxy in several billion years. For more information, head to nasa.gov/hubble Credits: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos #4thofJuly #IndependenceDay#Galaxies #Fireworks #Stars #MilkyWay #HubbleClassic

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El Universo también tiene sus propios fuegos artificiales: las Galaxias Antenas, que comenzaron a interactuar y colisionar hace cientos de millones de años, dándonos espectáculos como este.

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#HubbleClassic This series of images shows an expanding halo of light around a distant star, named V838 Monocerotis. The illumination of interstellar dust comes from the red supergiant star at the middle of the image, which gave off a flashbulb-like pulse of light 2 years ago. V838 Mon is located about 20,000 light-years away from Earth in the direction of the constellation Monoceros, placing the star at the outer edge of our Milky Way galaxy. Called a light echo, the expanding illumination of a dusty cloud around the star has been revealing remarkable structures ever since the star suddenly brightened for several weeks in early 2002. Though Hubble has followed the light echo in several snapshots, this image shows swirls or eddies in the dusty cloud for the first time. These eddies are probably caused by turbulence in the dust and gas around the star as they slowly expand away. The dust and gas were likely ejected from the star in a previous explosion, similar to the 2002 event, which occurred some tens of thousands of years ago. The surrounding dust remained invisible and unsuspected until suddenly illuminated by the brilliant explosion of the central star. The Hubble telescope has imaged V838 Mon and its light echo several times since the star's outburst in January 2002, in order to follow the constantly changing appearance of the dust as the pulse of illumination continues to expand away from the star at the speed of light. During the outburst event, the normally faint star suddenly brightened, becoming 600,000 times more luminous than our Sun. It was thus one of the brightest stars in the entire Milky Way, until it faded away again in April 2002. The star has some similarities to a class of objects called "novae," which suddenly increase in brightness due to thermonuclear explosions at their surfaces; however, the detailed behavior of V838 Mon, in particular its extremely red color, has been completely different from any previously known nova. Credit: NASA/Hubble #NASA #Hubble #space #science #astronomy #universe #telescope #cosmos

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Esta serie de imágenes muestran un eco de luz en expansión alrededor de una estrella distante, llamada V838 Monocerotis, a unos 20.000 años luz de distancia de la Tierra. La iluminación del polvo interestelar proviene de la estrella supergigante roja en el medio de la imagen.

Imágenes: nasahubble

Fernando Mejía

Fernando Mejía

Quise ser músico, cineasta, astronauta, científico y poeta, cuando supe que solo me alcanzaba para la última, me hice periodista en el Externado para al menos escribir de todo eso y no defraudar al niño que fui.

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